A Comprehensive Guide to Frozen Pipes
The chilling winter weather can be problematic for water pipes in homes and commercial
buildings. The American Red Cross provides some useful information on why cold weather
causes water pipe bursts and ways you can prevent such instances from occurring:
Preventing and Thawing Frozen Pipes
Being prepared and informed may help you to avoid the messy and often expensive issue of
frozen pipes. The American Red Cross provides information and suggestions around how to
prevent water pipes in the home from freezing, and how to thaw them if they do freeze.
Why Pipe Freezing is a Problem
Water has a unique property in that it expands as it freezes. This expansion puts tremendous
pressure on whatever is containing it, including metal or plastic pipes. No matter the “strength”
of a container, expanding water can cause pipes to break. Pipes that freeze most frequently
are those that are exposed to severe cold, like outdoor hose bibs, swimming pool supply lines,
water sprinkler lines, and water supply pipes in unheated interior areas like basements and crawl
spaces, attics, garages, or kitchen cabinets. Pipes that run against exterior walls that have little or
no insulation are also subject to freezing.
Preventing Frozen Pipes
Before the onset of cold weather, prevent freezing of these water supply lines and pipes by
following these recommendations:
• Drain water from swimming pool and water sprinkler supply lines following
manufacturer or installer directions. Do not put antifreeze in these lines unless directed.
Antifreeze is environmentally harmful, and is dangerous to humans, pets, wildlife, and
• Remove, drain, and store hoses used outdoors. Close inside valves supplying outdoor
hose bibs. Open the outside hose bibs to allow water to drain. Keep the outside valve
open so that any water remaining in the pipe can expand without causing the pipe to
• Check around the home for other areas where water supply lines are located in unheated
areas. Look in the basement, crawl space, attic, garage, and under kitchen and bathroom
cabinets. Both hot and cold water pipes in these areas should be insulated.
• Consider installing specific products made to insulate water pipes like a “pipe sleeve” or
installing UL-listed “heat tape,” “heat cable,” or similar materials on exposed water pipes.
Newspaper can provide some degree of insulation and protection to exposed pipes –
even ¼” of newspaper can provide significant protection in areas that usually do not have
frequent or prolonged temperatures below freezing.
During Cold Weather, Take Preventative Action
• Keep garage doors closed if there are water supply lines in the garage.
• Open kitchen and bathroom cabinet doors to allow warmer air to circulate around the
plumbing. Be sure to move any harmful cleaners and household chemicals up out of the
reach of children.
• When the weather is very cold outside, let the cold water drip from the faucet served by
exposed pipes. Running water through the pipe – even at a trickle – helps prevent pipes
• Keep the thermostat set to the same temperature both during the day and at night. By
temporarily suspending the use of lower nighttime temperatures, you may incur a higher
heating bill, but you can prevent a much more costly repair job if pipes freeze and burst.
• If you will be going away during cold weather, leave the heat on in your home, set to a
temperature no lower than 55° F.
To Thaw Frozen Pipes
• If you turn on a faucet and only a trickle comes out, suspect a frozen pipe. Likely places
for frozen pipes include against exterior walls or where your water service enters your
home through the foundation.
• Keep the faucet open. As you treat the frozen pipe and the frozen area begins to melt,
water will begin to flow through the frozen area. Running water through the pipe will
help melt ice in the pipe.
• Apply heat to the section of pipe using an electric heating pad wrapped around the pipe,
an electric hair dryer, a portable space heater (kept away from flammable materials), or
by wrapping pipes with towels soaked in hot water. Do not use a blowtorch, kerosene or
propane heater, charcoal stove, or other open flame device.
• Apply heat until full water pressure is restored. If you are unable to locate the frozen
area, if the frozen area is not accessible, or if you can not thaw the pipe, call a licensed
• Check all other faucets in your home to find out if you have additional frozen pipes. If
one pipe freezes, others may freeze, too.
• Consider relocating exposed pipes to provide increased protection from freezing.
• Pipes can be relocated by a professional if the home is remodeled.
• Add insulation to attics, basements and crawl spaces. Insulation will maintain higher
temperatures in these areas.
• For more information, please contact a licensed plumber or building professional.